14 most cruel dictators: Dictatorial ideology is as dangerous to the world as disorganized democracy. The imperfections of democracy create dictators as many dictators have been leftists, equally rightists.
Both types of ideology have flooded the earth with blood. Even today people who believe in their ideology exist. Marxism or Leninism is as dangerous for India as fascism or Hitlerism.
14 most cruel dictators who almost destroyed Humankind
If India follows and upholds such an ideology, its fall will be the same as that of the Soviet Union or the Germans, or that of Iraq, and that of Syria. The socialists believe that revolution in the world can only come through arms.
The fundamentalist religious group also believes the same; only then there is an alliance between the two. Both types of people want to force their ideology on the world. Today there are many dictators whom people consider to be revolutionary.
Actually, they were revolutionary, then became the ruler and then became the dictator from the ruler. These dictators adopted all kinds of evil and cruel paths to fulfill their purpose.
We will tell you about such cruel dictators, due to which the presence of the world has not only changed, but the future is also affected due to them till date. Let’s talk about the 14 cruel dictators of the world… whose ideology has caused controversy in India as well.
14 most cruel dictators who almost destroyed Humankind
Adolf Hitler: 14 most cruel dictators
The German dictator Adolf Hitler, who called himself Arya, was considered the cruelest, as he burned millions of Jewish alive. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20 1889 in Austria.
He was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) and was the ruler of Germany for many years. The symbol of his party was a swastika.
Hitler believed that the Jews from outside took over all our resources, and they have become the richest of the country, and they manage politics based on their wealth.
Hitler’s special circumstance was that Hitler was a vegetarian and had also enacted a law against animal cruelty. Also, Hitler’s first love was a Jewish girl. Hitler is considered the most responsible for the Second World War. At his command, the Nazi army invaded Poland.
France and Britain had promised to give security to Poland, and as promised, they both declared war against Nazi Germany. Hitler grew known as the most brutal ruler for slaughtering Europe.
Benito Mussolini: 14 most cruel dictators
Mussolini was also of Hitler’s ideology. Benito Mussolini was the leader of Italy, who led the National Fascist Party. He was a prominent leader among those who laid the foundation of the philosophy of fascism. He fought together in the Axis group in the Second World War.
Mussolini was born on July 29, 1883, in a village called Pradapio, Italy. At the age of 18, he became a teacher in a school. At the age of 19, he fled to Switzerland.
Mussolini invaded Abyssinia in 1935, and it can be said that the Second World War began here. The defeats led to such a situation that by July 25, 1943, Mussolini had to resign as Prime Minister and was taken into custody. Then in September, Hitler rescued him and he was established as the head of a puppet kingdom in northern Italy.
On April 26, 1945, the Allied forces reached Italy. They were supported by the country’s covert resistance. On the same day, Mussolini was caught trying to flee Switzerland and was executed on April 28 1945.
Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924): 14 most cruel dictators
He is considered a great leader and teacher of the functioning class, but the truth is that his supporters around the world do the work of politics only by grabbing power. The worker is still a worker today. The leftist ideology knows or wants to make people equally poor, not rich.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was the leader of the world’s first successful labor revolution. The first socialist state was established in the Soviet Union under Lenin’s leadership.
He told the workers that they had to get their rights free from exploitation-oppression and bondage, but they changed when Lenin came to power by climbing over the workers’ shoulders. The worker is still a worker today. Loaded socialism did not last long.
Lenin was born on April 22, 1870, in a small town called Simbirsk, Russia. His father was an officer in the education department. In those days, there was an autocratic rule of Tsarist rule in Russia, and the workers and peasant population was the victim of severe exploitation and oppression. On the other hand, the bourgeoisie, the vassal and the bureaucratic officials used to live a life of delicacy.
Lenin’s elder brother Alexander was a member of a revolutionary organization that tried to kill the Russian emperor (called the Czar). Lenin was 13 when Alexander was hanged for attempting to assassinate Jar.
His elder sister Anna was also arrested and put in jail. These events left a deep impact on his mind and heart and fueled his deep hatred for autocratic government.
But at the same time, he also began to feel that the road to Alexander could not be the way for the liberation of the Russian people.
While studying law, he began participating in student protests and was introduced to the works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. Russian Revolutionary Thinker He was active in the Shram Mukti Dal formed by Anov.
They then came to St. Petersburg, Russia’s largest industrial city, and engaged in the work of organizing workers. This is where his journey to power started.
Lenin created his philosophy himself, and in his famous book, he introduced the organizational principles of a new kind of revolutionary party of the proletariat.
Lenin demonstrated his theory of revolution through the October Revolution. Thousands of laborers bleed in the revolution. Under the leadership of the laborers, Lenin finally changed power.
Under the leadership of the Communist Party, the toiling masses of the entire country rose up to defend their state. From 1917 to 1921, there was a fierce civil war in Russia, but eventually, the exploiters were crushed, and the work of socialist construction under the supervision of Lenin began vigorously.
Lenin was badly injured in 1918 by bullets fired by an assassin as part of the conspiracy of the enemies of the revolution. A few weeks later, he returned to work but could never recover fully.
Lenin died on January 21 1924 at the age of just 53. After Lenin’s death, Joseph Stalin carried on his work. He called the Marxist ideology Marxism-Leninism.
Joseph Stalin: 14 most cruel dictators
This Russian dictator died in his bed on March 5, 1953, in his house near the capital Moscow. He held the bed only after the stroke came. It is believed that he was responsible for the death of 2 crore people. He killed these people for opposing his rule.
After Lenin’s death in 1924, Stalin took over the reins of Russia. Stalin not only pushed Lenin’s policies forward but also brought about some other changes by bringing in them. In the name of destroying his opponents, Stalin got the army repressed from place to place.
Stalin made Russia the second nuclear power country in the world during the Cold War. In 1939, with the help of the army, in the name of Great Purge, millions of murders were committed.
Mao Zedong or Mao or Mao Tse Tung: 14 most cruel dictators
Mao is also considered the creator of modern China. Although China has now left the path of Mao, India is now troubled by this ideology.
Mao, who came from a wealthy household, established the Communist policy in China. For this, he killed thousands of people. From 1949 until Mao’s death, he was in government in China.
Mao’s ideology, which considers Lenin and Marx to the extent of bigotry, is now slowly exiting China. Although Hu Jintao promoted his ideology, now the current leaders are from the Communist Party, but they have now adopted the path of capitalism while supporting the open economy.
Mao was cruel but gave new birth to China. Mao gave China a new direction. Like other dictators, he lived for China, not for himself. Although there are differences among people on this.
Some believe that Mao was a dictator, who controlled everything through his military policies and laws. He had ended the freedom of the people. Apart from the misuse of the law, it is said that millions of people died due to their wrong policies during the reign of Mao.
Muammar Gaddafi: 14 most cruel dictators
Gaddafi is accused of killing thousands of people. Born in a nomadic Baddu clan in the city of Sirte, Libya, Muammar Gaddafi actually emerged from a wave of Arab nationalism stemming from the Arab world’s defeat in the 1967 Arab-Israeli war.
The defeat caused widespread discontent in many Arab countries. Idris, the ruler there in Libya, was being blamed for the defeat. Realizing the mood of the Libyan people already dissatisfied with the monarchy, the 27-year-old captain of the Libyan army planned to overthrow the monarchy.
Gaddafi toppled the opportunity as soon as Idris returned from Turkey on September 1, 1969, taking advantage of the opportunity as soon as he went abroad to treat Idris.
Egyptian President Jamal Abdul Nasser inspired Gaddafi, but in a short time, Gaddafi became an autocratic ruler. Declaring himself a colonel, Gaddafi ruled Libya for 42 years as North Africa’s most brutal dictator.
Gaddafi was extremely proud of his tribal identity. He used to welcome his guests in traditional tents. Even during foreign trips, Gaddafi used to insist that he stay in a luxurious tent instead of the hotel.
Gaddafi was always surrounded by a group of beautiful female bodyguards. Hobbies such as Ukrainian nurses and blonde bodyguards soon made Gaddafi headlines in the foreign media.
Gaddafi’s governing principle was that let the different tribes clash together and rule. Several attempts were made by the US intelligence agency to overthrow Gaddafi. Gaddafi has since changed the name of the English calendar to months for religious support.
Gaddafi, paying attention to Libya’s economic condition, warned oil refineries to either make a new agreement or move out of the country. After this, there was a huge boom in the economic situation of Libya.
Earlier, the Libyan economy was at the mercy of foreign oil refineries. After this, all Arab countries followed Gaddafi’s formula. In Arab countries, ‘Petroboom’ is primarily attributed to Gaddafi.
Gaddafi created his own political ideology. He also wrote the book ‘Green Book’, in this book about ‘people’s government’. In 1977, Gaddafi declared Libya a Jamhuria, which meant ‘the rule of the people’.
The rationale behind this is that Libya has now become a true democracy run by popular local revolutionary councils. Colonel Gaddafi also approved a political party called the Arab Socialist Union to ease public pressure.
Gaddafi banned freedom of expression in 1973, raising the slogan of the Islamic Republic. Gaddafi waged war against tribal groups in 1980 as a matter of power. To support Arab countries, Gaddafi targeted the non-Arab community of North Africa.
In 1987, Gaddafi also waged war against Christians in Chad, resulting in the deaths of thousands. During the Cultural Revolution, Gaddafi closed all private businesses and set academic books on fire.
Gaddafi killed his critics. Gaddafi also used mercenary killers to kill his critics settled in the US, Europe, and the Middle East. Gaddafi also supported terrorist groups such as the IRA of Northern Ireland as well as dangerous terrorist organizations such as Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines.
Gaddafi was also accused of conspiring to fly a Pan Am aircraft in Lockerbie, Scotland, in December 1988. Gaddafi never favored Western countries. Libya is the worst hit by the Arab revolution spread out of Tunisia in 2011, and the future of Gaddafi’s abundant oil wealth has been questioned since Gaddafi’s elimination.
Since the end of Gaddafi, a warning has arisen for Arab nations embroiled in the ‘oil game’, which cannot be ignored. The dictators, who ruled Libya for 42 years, pleaded with government troops to save their lives before dying. Gaddafi’s last words were – ‘Don’t shoot me’.
Idi Amin (1920-2003): 14 most cruel dictators
Idi Amin, the ruler of Uganda, seized power in 1971. He ruled the country for only 8 years but these 8 years became a painful 80 years for the people. Amin was responsible for the death of 6 lakh people. Amin felt that there could be no better and greater than that for any work.
Idi Amin was the Army Chief and the President of Uganda. It is a Central African country. His tenure lasted from 1971 to 1979. This dictator was also accused of being a cannibal. Idi Amin had pushed Uganda into the pit of poverty during his tenure.
Amin had declared himself as ‘His Excellency’ and ‘President for Life’. Amin argued that he should be the head of the Commonwealth and not Queen Elizabeth. Amin had 5 wives and dozens of children, yet he was always looking for a young girl for marriage.
He believed that any worthy girl would be ready to become the wife of the King of Uganda. In 1976 Amin stated that he is the king of Scotland. In fact, he had declared himself as ‘King of Scott’.
Amin’s brutal rule came to an end when Tanzania took over Kampala. Amin escaped from there and died in Saudi Arabia in the year 2003.
Saddam Hussein (1937–2006): 14 most cruel dictators
Saddam Hussein is accused of the deaths of thousands of Kurdish, Shia, and Turkish Muslims. He pushed the Shiites of Iraq to the margins.
The Shias were prohibited from going to the holy place of Karbala. In Iraq, not even a single leaf moved against Saddam Hussein’s will. He and his sons had stricken the Iraqi public. He had inflicted so much oppression on the Shias that even humanity had wept.
The story of Saddam Hussein’s victimization is as frightening as his journey to becoming President. Saddam Hussein, who was President of Iraq for 2 decades, was born on April 28 1937 in the village of al-Oja near Tikrit, north of Baghdad.
His father died before he was born. In 1957, 20-year-old Saddam joined the Baath Party. While in the party, he created his own image in the Sunni world and kept preparing a separate group behind the scenes. On July 16 1979, he removed himself from power and sat on the Iraqi throne.
In 1962, there was an uprising in Iraq, and Brigadier Abdul Karim Qasim took over power by removing the monarchy with the support of Britain. But there was a rebellion against his government, though it failed.
Saddam Hussein was also involved in this rebellion and fearing being caught Saddam fled to Egypt and hid. In 1968, there was a rebellion in Iraq again and this time 31-year-old Saddam Hussein, along with General Ahmad Hasan Al Bakr, captured power.
Over time, Saddam Hussein strengthened his hold on power and continued to appoint his relatives and colleagues to important positions in the government.
As soon as he took power, he started beating his rivals. Meanwhile, in 1982, Saddam Hussein killed 148 people in Dujail village after a suicide attack on him. In August 1990, Iraq waged war with Kuwait, accusing Kuwait of bringing down oil prices.
In January 1991, Iraqi forces were forced to retreat from Kuwait after US troops intervened under pressure. Thousands of Iraqi soldiers were killed and captured in this war.
But after the defeat, Saddam faced a rebellion from the Shia community in Iraq, and by the year 2000, George Bush’s coronation in the US increased the pressure on the Saddam government.
Subsequently, in 2002, a UN team visited Iraq and tried to find a stock of chemical and biological weapons there but they did not get any success in it.
Despite this, in March 2003, the US, along with its allies invaded Iraq, and finally, after a 40-day war, Saddam Hussein’s government was toppled on April 9 2003.
Subsequently, on December 13 2003, Saddam Hussein was arrested from a bunker built inside a house in Tikrit. Saddam was subsequently prosecuted in several cases.
Finally, on November 5 2006, Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death and hanged at Camp Justice in the Khadimiya area of northern Baghdad.
With this, the existence of another dictator from the world disappeared forever, but today the Islamic State has started making its place in Iraq. Its chief, Baghdadi, is advancing even more dangerous than Saddam.
Yahya Khan: 14 most cruel dictators
General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan was born in Kalwal. He took over Pakistan in 1969 and implemented martial law as well. Yahya Khan used army and security forces in East Pakistan to crush political politics, which led to war between India and Pakistan in the year 1971.
With the issue of Dhaka and the army surrendering to India, he became the biggest villain of Pakistan. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto replaced him and put him under house arrest. Yahya died in Rawalpindi in 1980 and was buried with state honors.
Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq: 14 most cruel dictators
This military chief of Pakistan seized power in 1977 by overthrowing the then Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. He imposed military rule in Pakistan and Bhutto was hanged.
He first became the military ruler of Pakistan as the Chief of Army Staff, then in 1978 he declared himself President of Pakistan. In 1988, Zia-ul-Haq died in a military plane explosion.
While they killed thousands of Shias on the one hand, on the other hand, they made a plan to make Kashmir of India a disturbed region. Which later rulers worked on.
Hosni Mubarak: 14 most cruel dictators
Muhammad Hosni Saeed Ibrahim Mubarak. Born on May 4 1928. He was the fourth President of the Arab Republic of Egypt. He was appointed Vice-President in 1975 and assumed the office of President after the assassination of President Anwar al-Sadat on October 14 1981.
He has been the ruler of Egypt for the longest time after Muhammad Ali Pasha. It is also surprising that he was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award in 1995.
Indeed, Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat was shot and killed by some Islamic fundamentalists during a military parade. After this, Vice President Hosni Mubarak was placed on the President’s throne.
In November 1981, he was elected President on the basis of public opinion. After this, he held the presidency every time till 1987, 1993, 1999 and 2005.
Thousands of people angry with poverty and repression started demonstrations against the Egyptian government from January 25 2011, which Hosni Mubarak sent police and tanks to stop.
24 people were killed and more than 1,000 were injured in an encounter between police and protesters in Cairo, Suez and Alexandria.
In the first week of February, lakhs of people gathered at Tahrir Chowk in Cairo and asked Mubarak to leave the country.
Mubarak said earlier that he would not leave Egypt and the reason for this was that the people might not want freedom from poverty and unemployment and democratic reform.
He said he would continue on the path of progress, but on February 11 2011 Mubarak succumbed to the public and resigned.
Kim Jong: 14 most cruel dictators
In 4 years, Kim Jong is accused of blazing hundreds of people with cannon and hanged. Kim Jong Il became dictator after the death of his father Kim Ul Sung.
Jong is not known much because of the North Korean government’s maintenance of secrecy. He was the dynastic communist ruler of the world. He was criticized for killing human rights and for testing the missiles, threatening the public.
Jong’s dictatorial attitude led the United States to declare North Korea along with Iran and Iraq in 2002 as the Axis of Evil. North Korea faced many difficulties during this period. Jong’s dictatorial attitude left North Korea isolated in the economy. Jong died in 2011.
François Duvalier: 14 most cruel dictators
Often dictators are very scared. Former Haiti president François Douvalier was also frightened. During his 14-year reign, he did many strange things. Originally he was deeply superstitious and believed that on the 22nd of every month, the strength of souls comes in him.
Therefore, he used to move out of his residence on the 22nd of every month. He claimed that on November 22, 1963, due to the powers of his spirits, US President John F. Kennedy was killed. Attempts were made to murder him 6 times but he escaped each time. He died in 1971 after a long illness.
Ayatollah Khomeini: Although Ayatollah Khomeini has now withdrawn, but his exploits caused tragedy to the people of his country and the world. Ahmadinejad has taken up the task of carrying out his work.
America and Israel were always troubled by Khomeini. On the strength of his power and wealth, he gave a lot of air to the rebel group in West and South Asia. He claimed that Israel would be finished in 25 years.
The US imposed economic sanctions on Iran because of their anti-Israel policy and nuclear program. He was the one who banned Salman Rushdie’s book ‘Satanic Verses’.
Ayatollah Khomeini is considered a dictator because he interfered in a dictatorial manner in other countries. The Shia sect began to dominate the politics of Islamic countries in the 1970s due to Khomeini.
Saudi Arabia was angered by Iran’s growing influence in the neighborhood. In 1979, for the first time in the eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia, the Shia community began to raise its head against the Sultanate.
He was giving air to the Shia community living across the world. As the leadership of Iran came into the hands of Ayatollah Khomeini, every year during the Hajj in Mecca, the Shia community began to protest against the Saudi administration.
Actually, Mecca is in Saudi Arabia. There Ahle Hadith community dominates in Saudi Arabia. They were upset by the increasing aggression of the Shia community. In 1981, 72 Iran-trained terrorists entered Bahrain and took Bahrain virtually hostage.
In 1984, Iran prepared plans for a fierce uproar during the Hajayatra. Under that plan, Iran sent the largest number of 1,54,000 Haj pilgrims to Mecca for Hajj. The Iranians rioted in Mecca.
In the same year, there were terrorist attacks in Kuwait with the support of Iran. The Shia community in Kuwait is about 25 to 35 percent of the population. To fight against this influence of Iran, Arab countries appealed to all Sunni countries and people including Pakistan to stand up against Iran.
In Pakistan, the Zia-ul-Haq government began to mobilize the Shia community. An organization called Sipahi-Shahaba was formed to kill the Shia people. This organization was fully supported by the Pakistani intelligence agency ISI.
The rise of Ayatollah Khomeini sparked a new struggle for supremacy among the Arabs. The prolonged Iran-Iraq War took place between 1980–88, which remained inconclusive. Failing to control Iran, Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait and from there the future of the world changed.
Saparmurth Niyazov (1940–2006): Turkmen President Niyazov used to present himself as a dictator such as Cohan’s fictional character ‘Dictator’. He had built his 15 meter high gold plated statue facing the sun.
Although the majority of Turkmen people lived in poverty, Niyazov built an ice palace in the capital and ordered the construction of a lake in the middle of the desert.
He got the city, parks built in his name. Even the month of January was renamed after him. After quitting smoking in the year 1997, he had asked all his ministers to do the same. He not only banned drama, opera, but also banned men having long hair.
Like Saddam Hussein, he wrote a book. ‘Rukhnama’ is a collection of his views on the history of Turkmenistan. It was made mandatory to teach in schools and universities. He died in 2006 and in 2011 his gold statue was also removed.
Paul Pot: Paul Pot and his army took over Cambodia in 1975. He became the Prime Minister of the new communist government in 1976 and started his dictatorship. Pot and his army were known as the Khmer Rouge. It destroyed private property, currency and many cities to form the Maoist Farmers’ Society.
During its rule about 20% of the population was killed by forced labor, famine etc. Pot was thrown out when it was found in Cambodia, Vietnam in 1979, but remained active in the Khmer Rouge.
Retired from Rouge in 1985. He died in 1998, but the mystery of the cause of death remains intact. However, an official announcement was made that he died of a heart attack.
King Abdullah (Saudi Arabia): Saudi King King Abdullah has been in power since 1995. Even today women in Saudi Arabia cannot drive a car. She cannot even go out shopping outside the house to do the job without the permission of the male members of the family. Human rights were severely violated in Saudi Arabia during the reign of King Abdullah.
Omar Al Bashir (Sudan): Bashir, 62, held power after leading a rebellion in 1989 and is still the surveyor of Sudan. Since February 2003 in Darfur, western Sudan, so far, one lakh 80 thousand people have been killed and more than 20 lakh have been rendered homeless during the reign of Bashir.
The dominance of Bashir’s soldiers is still prevalent here. Now Sudan is also being distracted by the growing uneasiness in North Africa.
Alexander Lukashenko: Alexander Lukashenko took over as President of Belarus in 1994 and he has remained in office till now. Lukashenko served as a border guard in Frontier Troops from 1975 to 1977 and then in the Soviet Army from 1980 to 82.
In 1977–1978, Lukashenko formed the youth wing of the Comsomol, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in Mogilev, as well as the director of agricultural form. In 1990 he became the only deputy in the Supreme Council of Belarus who created the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Lukashanko served as chairman of the Anti-Corruption Committee of the Belarusian Parliament, with Speaker Stanislav as the 70 resignation convicts, with 70 government officials.
Lukashenko won the presidential election in 1994 with the creation of the new Belarusian constitution. After becoming President, Lukashenko also changed the country’s emblem, disregarding the rules and laws of the Supreme Soviet.
The new constitution legally allowed Lukashenko’s rule to dictatorship. Lukashenko’s economic policy has been uncertain and perceived Marxist outlook. 80 percent of the resources here are controlled by the state. Due to Russian support, salaries and pensions are being paid on time. Human rights abuses are rampant.
Leaders of opposition parties are placed under house arrest. Two members of Lukashanko’s cabinet mysteriously disappeared. In the 2006 election Lukashanko banned the standing of the opposition.
Nikolai Ceau: The end of this Communist dictator of Romania was also very bad. On Christmas day in 1989, he was killed by army gunmen in Bucharest. Many soldiers were vying to kill him. Because of this, it was decided by taking out the lottery who would end Nikolai?
Francisco Franco: Francisco Franco was the most brutal dictator in Spain. He was publicly known for hanging his enemies. He was more known for the murders of his people. He also strangled her to death.
Ferdinand Marcos: He eventually had to relinquish power in the 1986 election due to allegations of corruption and later died in the Hawaiian Islands while living in exile.
Park Chung-hee: This dictator ruled for 18 years in North Korea. To remain in power, amended the constitution and declared an emergency in the whole country. He kept the regime under his control through his intelligence system.
Alfredo Strawsner: Strawsner ruled in Paraguay for 35 years. This military ruler maintained his rule with the support of the US. He was forced to live in exile in Brazil after his subordinates revolted and took power.
Mobutu CC-Seiko: This dictatorial leader ruled Congo for 32 years. This dictator was in the news due to public hanging and setting new records of corruption. They were removed from power by a military coup with the support of neighboring country Rwanda. He died in Morocco in 1997 while living in exile.
Augusto Pinochet: He ruled Chile for 16 years. He made economic reforms in his country, but he was known for brutally repressing his opponents. He had to quit his post in 1987 in a referendum held due to international pressure.
Manuel Noriega: Norieza ruled for 6 years in Panama. He was supported by America. He was also accused of smuggling drugs.
Suharto: Suharto was the military ruler of Indonesia and the second president whose term lasted from 1967 to 1998. Suharto was a lieutenant colonel in the army. It is estimated that 5 lakh Indonesian citizens died during his reign.
It is also said about Suharto that he drove the country out of poverty. He was dismissed in 1998 due to intense opposition from supporters of democracy.
Nicoli Siusu: He ruled in Romania for 24 years. He promoted himself as a communist. He was removed from the post through a public rebellion.