India and Nepal Slow-Motion Border Dispute: Nepal says that the road that India has built on its land, that land can be given to India on the lease, but the claim cannot be left on it.
On Wednesday, an all-party meeting was convened by Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli on the script conscription, in which former Prime Ministers also took part.
Prem Suwal, MP of Nepal Mazdoor Kisan Party, told after this meeting, “Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli has assured all the leaders that they will not give up the claim on that land in favor of India.”
Nepal’s Foreign Minister Pradeep Kumar Gyawali said, “The Prime Minister said in this meeting that the government would protect the land of its forefathers. They have also appealed to the leaders to exercise restraint on this issue.”
On May 8, the Defense Minister of India Rajnath Singh inaugurated the Uttarakhand-Mansarovar road passing through Lipulekh pass.
India and Nepal Slow-Motion Border Dispute: Nepal sent a force to the border, and said – will not leave even an inch of land
The script is the area that borders China, Nepal, and India. Nepal is angry about this step of India.
The process of anti-India protests in Nepal regarding the issue of alleged ‘encroachment’ in the script is also going on.
In this connection, Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli’s government has also lodged a diplomatic protest in high-sounding words, reiterating Nepal’s claim to the scripted area before India.
Darchula district of Nepal falls on the banks of the Mahakali river in the east of Dharchula in Uttarakhand. The Mahakali river also serves as the boundary of Nepal-India.
The Nepal government says that India has built a 22-km long road in its scripted area.
Nepal had earlier also expressed its opposition to India in November of 2019.
The political map that was released at the time of the partition of Jammu and Kashmir officially showed the Kalapani area under Indian territory.
The area of Kalapani is located to the west of this script. Nepal has been claiming this area for a long time.
In 2015, when China and India reached an agreement to promote trade and commerce, Nepal officially protested the two countries.
Nepal says that neither India nor China took it into confidence for this agreement while the proposed road was to pass through its territory.
Nepal’s decision on sending a force
This week, when anti-India protests were at its peak in Kathmandu, Nepal made another big decision on Wednesday.
They has sent a team of the Armed Police Force (APF) to the border area along the Mahakali river for the first time. The APF has set up a border post in Chhangroo village, adjacent to Kalapani.
The structure of the APF is similar to that of the Armed Border Force of India and the Indo-Tibetan Border Police.
Two hundred four years after the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816, Nepal has finally taken steps to protect its territory bordering the three countries.
This agreement was reached after the two-year Britain-Nepal war, under which Nepal had to relinquish control of the won land on the western side of Mahakali river.
After the Kalapani dispute, protests in Kathmandu this week over the transcript of the script and the Indo-Nepal diplomatic outcry have once again soured relations between the two countries.
However, barring a few issues of dispute, the relations between the two countries have been almost cordial in recent times.
In the same month, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and KP Sharma Oli had committed to remaining united against the epidemic of Kovid-19.
But the incident of India’s road construction in Lipulekh has angered many Nepalis.
Even Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli had to clear that “Nepal will not leave even an inch of its land.”
1800 km long border
In such a situation, the question arises will the Indo-Nepal friendship be ended due to the sudden scriptwriting dispute?
Why is this mountainous region originating from the Mahakali river so crucial to Nepal?
And this question is equally important, why is scriptwriting so crucial for India strategically?
Many Indian analysts on Nepal-India relations say, “No two countries are as close as India-Nepal is in terms of civilization, culture, history, and geography.”
But on the 1800-km-long border, many border disputes never end.
The borders of the two countries are mostly open and slanted. However, now the deployment of security forces has increased to guard the border.
It is more difficult that the boundaries of the two countries have not been completely determined.
In the areas where the rivers like Mahakali (Sharda) and Gandak (Narayani) decide the boundary, the picture changes with the floods during the monsoon days.
The attitude of rivers also varies from year to year. In many places, the old pillars setting the boundary are still standing, but the local people do not appreciate them.
Under normal circumstances, people start moving from one country to another.
Treaty of Sugauli
Survey officials and technicians from India and Nepal have not been able to make any such map on which both countries agree, despite the collective efforts of years.
According to the report of Budhi Narayan Shrestha, former Director-General of the Survey Department of Nepal, India and Nepalese authorities prepared the map in the years 1850 and 1856.
According to Budhi Narayan Shrestha, the Mahakali river originates from Limpiyadhura (16 km northwest of Kalapani).
In the Treaty of Sugauli, this river was given the border of both countries, which proves that Kalapani is part of Nepal.
But India refuses to accept these maps as evidence. The Indian side says that its place should be considered on the map of 1875 in which the origin of the Mahakali river was shown in the east of Kalapani.
Significantly, there is no indication of Nepal on the 1875 map.
Officials in Kathmandu who know the matter say that most of the work of determining the border of Nepal and India has been completed.
However, this work has not been completed in the riverine areas.
The Mahakali River on the western border of Nepal and the Gandak River on the southern border determine the boundary of both countries, but the work of map-setting here is still incomplete.
Survey officials and technicians from both countries cannot agree on the boundary of points on the Mahakali and Gandak rivers as the flow of rivers varies.
The trend of these rivers has been continuously changing over the decades. The dispute of Lipulekh is related to such an area.
Nepal has been saying that Lipulekh mountain is situated to the east of the Mahakali river, due to which this area naturally becomes part of Nepal, and this is also clearly stated in the Treaty of Sugauli.
Source of Mahakali River
According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Treaty of Sugauli formally ended the Britain-Nepal War.
Under the terms of the treaty, Nepal had relinquished its claim to the contiguous terrain of the Terai and the land it had won on the banks of the Sutlej River west of the Mahakali River.
If the Treaty of Sugauli clearly states that the east side of the Mahakali river belongs to Nepal, where is the problem?
Do Nepali historians and survey officials say that the misconception between the two countries is about where the origin of the Mahakali river is? And this is the root of the dispute.
Therefore, the question arises from where does the Mahakali River originate? From the hills of Limpiyadhura or Lipulekh?
Nepal’s national politics
Two small rivers converge near Gunji village, where the border road to Lipulekh was opened last Friday.
One stream comes out of the hills of Limpiyadhura in the southeast, and the other flow comes from Lipulekh in the south.
The issue of Mahakali-Kalapani has been arising in Nepal’s national politics for more than three decades.
Nepal experts and officials say that the Mahakali River originates from Limpiyadhura and rises in the northwest towards Uttarakhand in India.
But on the contrary, the Indian side says that the Mahakali river is facing northeast towards Nepal.
He says that the water stream coming out of the script is the source of the Mahakali river; from this, the boundaries of the two neighboring countries are determined.
Kailash Mansarovar Yatra Route
India defended the decision on Nepal’s stern response after the road opened for scripture on May 8, stating that no Nepalese territory had been infringed upon and that the route road to the traditional religious pilgrimage to Kailash Mansarovar It has been made at
But Nepali historians, officials, and the people of Gunji village (from where India opened the road to Lipulekh on May 8) say that the Nepali side has enough evidence that, according to the treaty of Sugauli, the Lipulek and Many villages in that area fall under the Nepali region.
The dispute is also about other areas. The Government of Nepal has been consistently emphasizing that apart from Lipulekh and Gunji Village, India has too ‘occupied’ the regions adjoining it to the north of the Mahakali River, including Kalapani.
ITBP established its outpost in 1950 during the Indo-China war in Kalapani. Apart from this, there is a dispute between the two countries about Limpiyadhura located in the far west.
Goods receipt and voter identity card
Officials of the Survey Department of Nepal say that Lipulekh and Kalapani are remote areas in the Himalayan region where it is complicated to reach, and there is no human population living there.
This is why Nepal did not set up a border security post there and paid attention to essential development like roads or bridges.
Many Nepali officials and journalists have gathered their Nepali documents with local people after their visit to Kalapani in the past decades.
These include the Gunji village adjoining Lipulekh and the surrounding communities of Kalpani.
India continues to dismiss Nepal’s claim.
The Indian Embassy in Kathmandu and its Foreign Ministry, while trying to calm the atmosphere on its own, have said that these issues will be discussed at the Foreign Secretary-level talks between the two countries.
Anti-India slogans are echoing from Parliament to the street in Nepal, and yet the dispute between the two countries over the black water or the script has not been resolved.
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